Natural bitumen, also called tar sands or oil sands, shares the attributes of heavy oil but is yet more dense and viscous. Natural bitumen is oil having a viscosity greater than 10,000 cP. Other Terms Viscosity is a measure of the fluids resistance to flow. It varies greatly with temperature.
Crude oils viscosity can vary from a low-viscosity liquid to up to tar-like, nearly solid form. Classification according to the API degree Light crude oil API gravity higher than 31.1 API less than 870 kgm Medium crude oil API gravity from 31.1 API to 22.3 API 870 to 920 kgm
One of the major issues is the high viscosity of the heavy crude oils, which makes production and processing difficult Monnery et al. 1995 Mehrotra et al. 1996. Heavy crude oil and tar-sand oil are petroleum or petroleum-like liquids or semisolids occurring naturally in porous media. These oils are characterized by viscosity
The coal tar creosotes consist of aromatic hydrocarbons, anthracene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene derivatives. At least 75 of the coal tar creosote mixture is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs. Unlike the coal tars and coal tar creosotes, coal tar pitch is a residue produced during the distillation of coal tar.
The crude bitumen contained in Albertas tar sands is described by Canadian authorities as petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits. Bitumen is a thick, sticky form of hydrocarbon, so heavy and viscous thick that it will not flow
Typically, light crude oil has a low viscosity with an American Petroleum Institute API rating above 31.1 . Anything below 10 is very heavy, and bitumen is a very dense material with a rating of about 8 . 1 In the past 30 years, the percentage of heavy crude produced in Canada has risen dramatically.
Crude coal tar. By crude coal tar as used herein is meant the crude coal tar product obtained as a by-product in the distillation of coal anthracite or bituminous to produce combustible gas, which distillation may be carried out either at relatively high temperatures, for example, in by-product coke ovens or retorts, or at lower temperatures as in the so-called low temperature coal ...
Oil and Tar Sands M.B. Dusseault ... 20,000 cP viscosity usually 11 API in typical Canadian reservoirs at temperatures of 16-35 C. ... synthetic crude oil by 2006, perhaps even more if the price of oil stays above USA20.00bbl indefinitely. Currently, the limitation on CHOPS production in ...
Sep 25, 2014 As the name tar sands , or oil sands, implies, the heavy crude is found mixed in with sand, clay, and water, which must be removed, then the heavy crude must be upgraded to reduce viscosity
Sep 14, 2020 We also elaborate more on bitumen, asphalt, and tars properties and uses. What is bitumen Bitumen is a by-product of crude oil. After taking crude oil to an atmospheric distillation column in refineries, we heat it to temperatures between 300 and 350 degrees Celsius. As a result, lighter fractions of crude oil separate from non-boiling ...
In case of the crude oil the ingredients of the crude determine its viscosity. Especially tar or asphaltene, increase the thickness of crude. The higher the viscosity, the more difficult it is to transport through a pipe. Pumping highly viscous liquids can be very energy-intensive and wearing for machines and pipes.
The key difference between coal tar and bitumen is that coal tar is a synthetic substance, whereas bitumen is a naturally occurring substance. Moreover, coal tar is a byproduct in the process of producing coke from coal while bitumen is a byproduct in the fractional distillation of crude oil.
The efficient design of the Standard Tar Viscometer STV guarantees compliance with EN 12846-1, EN 12876-2, EN 13357, and IP 72 requirements, addressing all cut-back bitumen viscosity testing needs. Designed with safety in mind, the stainless steel, open jacket viscosity bath is equipped with digital temperature regulation, over temperature ...
Jun 02, 2020 The key difference between coal tar and bitumen is that coal tar is a synthetic substance, whereas bitumen is a naturally occurring substance.. Both coal tar and bitumen can be observed as dark, thick, highly viscous liquids. These are mainly composed of carbon.Bitumen, also called asphalt, can be found either naturally or it occurs as a byproduct of refining processes.
The API American Petroleum Institute gravity of tar-sand bitumen varies from 5o API to approximately 10o API depending upon the deposit, viscosity is very high, and volatility is low. On the other hand, the API gravity of heavy oil is in the order of 10o to 20o. The viscosity of heavy oil is high, relative to conventional crude oil, but is
Less volatile fraction separated from coal tar by distillation. Contains naphthalene, acenaphthene, methylnaphthalenes, fluorene, phenol, cresols, pyridine, picolines, among other substances. Flash point greater than 100 F. Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors heavier than air.
crude oil. In the absence of viscosity data, oil with API gravity less than 10 degrees is generally considered a natural bitumen Danyluk and others, 1984, whereas oil with API gravity ranging from 10 degrees API to about 20 degrees API is considered heavy crude oil. The term extra-heavy crude oil is used for oil with a viscosity
Heavy Oil, Extra Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, Tar Sands, Bitumen, . need for a simple classification 4 Classes based mainly on downhole viscosity 0A Class Medium Heavy Oil 25 d API 18 100 cPo m 10 cPo, mobile at reservoir conditions 0B Class Extra Heavy Oil 20 d API 7 10 000 cPo m 100 cPo , mobile at reservoir ...
As the name tar sands, or oil sands, implies, the heavy crude is found mixed in with sand, clay, and water, which must be removed, then the heavy crude must be upgraded to reduce viscosity
Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen 7 reflected in the differences observed in various recovery processes as well as in the price variations between conventional crude oil types, the heavy oils, and tar sand bitumen Tables 1.1 and 1.2 Speight, 2011, 2013a, b. Typically, crude oil quality has an effect on the recovery process insofar as
Oil Sands Crude. The term oil sands refers to a particular type of nonconventional oil deposit that is found throughout the world. Oil sands, sometimes referred to as tar sands, is a mixture of sand, clay, other minerals, water, and bitumen. The bitumen is a form of crude
Liquids - Kinematic Viscosities. Viscosity is resistance to shear or flow in a fluid - and a measure of the adhesivecohesive or frictional property. Viscosity arising due to internal molecular friction produces the frictional drag effect. There are two related measures of fluid viscosity - known as dynamic or absolute and kinematic viscosity.
Nov 28, 2020 Heavy crude oil is also known as tar sands because of its high bitumen content. With simple distillation, heavier crude oil produces more lower-valued products, compared to the simple distillation of light crude. Heavy crude oil requires extra refining to
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Viscosity - Property of a liquid that resists any force tending to produce flow. It is the evidence of cohesion between the particles of a fluid which causes a liquid to offer resistance analogous to friction. An increase in the temperature usually reduces the viscosity conversely, a temperature reduction usually increases the viscosity.
Dec 26, 2018 Coal Tar and its Distillation Processes. Coal tar, also known as crude tar, is the by-product generated during the high temperature carbonizing of coking coal for the production of the metallurgical coke in the by-product coke ovens. It is a black, viscous, sometimes semi-solid, fluid of peculiar smell, which is condensed together with aqueous ...
Jul 01, 2016 WHY PIPELINE SPECIFICATIONS MATTER. In order to meet pipeline specifications, diluted bitumen sold to market commonly referred to as Dilbit must contain less than 0.5 water solids and have a maximum viscosity of 350 cSt or a maximum density of 940 kgm .These specifications ensure the crude will flow at low temperatures, and minimizes the risks of corrosion and erosion.
A process for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point. 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said raw bitumen is added to said crude oil in an amount ...
10 rows Crude oils viscosity can vary from a low-viscosity liquid to up to tar-like, nearly solid ...
Viscosity at 100 c. 2 - 5. Flash point closed Min 90 c. Density at 20 c. 12 - 22 . Quinolne insoluble. 9 - 14 . Phenol content. 0.6 - 1 . Naphthalene content. 5 - 10 . Carbon content. 90 - 93 . Hydrogen content. 5 - 6 . Nitrogen. 0.6 - 1.2 . Sulpher content. 0.5 - 0.7 . Sudium content ppm. 25 - 30 . Chlorine content. Traces. Bm c i. 180 - 189
Mar 18, 2019 Tar sands were therefore said to be characterized as containing bitumen, liquids, or semisolids with viscosities greater than 10,000 centipoise cp at original reservoir temperature, generally corresponding to a specific gravity of less than 10 API at 60 F 16 C.
Sep 19, 2013 Reduce the viscosity of the feed stream Typically this is the residue from either the refinerys atmospheric or vacuum distillation of crude oil but can also be used to reduce the viscosity of oils produced in the processing of tar sands, certain high viscosity crude oils and other high viscosity
Jun 30, 2016 Western Canadian Select is Canadas largest heavy crude oil stream, comprised of bitumen, conventional oil, synthetic crude and condensate. Learn more about this unique benchmark crude produced exclusively in Western Canada. There are dozens of different crude oil streams produced in Western Canada, each with varying degrees of quality and grade.
Jan 29, 2018 The bituminous crudes derived from tar sands as well as heavy crude oils are characterized by high viscosity, which poses problems during their pipeline transportation. These oils contain a significantly higher percentage of asphaltenes, which have polycondensed aromatic ring structures and tend to self-aggregate to produce a viscoelastic structure resulting in the high viscosity
High viscosity is a major constraint in the recovery and transportation of heavy crudes and tar sand bitumens. Viscosity reduction may be achieved by mixing the crude with a light petroleum solvent. This paper presents a generalized correlation for calculating viscosities of such mixtures.